What is a stablecoin and how does it maintain a stable value?

In this article, we will explore what is a stablecoin and how does it maintain a stable value.

Sep. 09, 2023
What is a stablecoin and how does it maintain a stable value?


A stablecoin is a type of cryptocurrency designed to maintain a stable value by pegging its price to a specific asset or a basket of assets. It achieves stability through various mechanisms such as collateralization, algorithmic control, or central bank backing. Stablecoins offer the benefits of cryptocurrencies, such as fast and secure transactions, while minimizing the price volatility typically associated with traditional cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.

Now, let us explain in details what is a stablecoin and how does it maintain a stable value, but first let's start with an example

Imagine a digital currency that maintains a stable value, unaffected by the extreme price fluctuations often seen in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. This is where stablecoins come into play. Stablecoins are a type of cryptocurrency that aim to provide stability by pegging their value to an underlying asset, typically a fiat currency like the US dollar or a basket of assets.

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Stablecoins use various mechanisms to maintain their stable value. Here are some of the common approaches:

Collateralized Stablecoins

These stablecoins are backed by reserves of assets, typically fiat currencies or other cryptocurrencies. The stablecoin issuer holds these assets in a reserve and issues tokens based on the value of the reserves. For example, if a stablecoin is backed by US dollars, the issuer would hold a corresponding amount of US dollars in reserve. The stablecoin tokens can be redeemed for the underlying assets, ensuring their value remains stable.

Algorithmic Stablecoins

Algorithmic stablecoins aim to maintain stability through smart contract algorithms. These algorithms adjust the supply of stablecoins based on demand and market conditions. For example, if the price of the stablecoin is above the pegged value, the algorithm may increase the supply to bring the price down. Conversely, if the price is below the pegged value, the algorithm may decrease the supply to raise the price.

Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs)

Some stablecoins are issued and backed by central banks. These CBDCs represent digital versions of traditional fiat currencies and are regulated by central banks. CBDCs offer the stability of fiat currencies combined with the advantages of blockchain technology.

Technical Characteristics

Blockchain Infrastructure

Stablecoins are typically built on blockchain platforms such as Ethereum, Binance Smart Chain, or others. These platforms provide a decentralized and secure environment for issuing, transferring, and verifying stablecoin transactions.

Smart Contracts

Stablecoins often utilize smart contracts, which are self-executing contracts with predefined rules encoded on the blockchain. Smart contracts enable automatic issuance, redemption, and other operations related to stablecoins, ensuring transparency and efficiency.

Key Characteristics

Now, let's see the key characteristics of stablecoins.

Token Standards

Stablecoins usually adhere to token standards such as ERC-20 (Ethereum) or BEP-20 (Binance Smart Chain). These standards define a set of rules and functionalities that enhance interoperability and compatibility between different stablecoin implementations

Auditing and Transparency

Many stablecoin projects undergo regular audits by independent third-party firms to provide transparency and maintain trust in the stability of the stablecoin. Auditing ensures that the reserves backing the stablecoin are properly managed and sufficient to maintain stability.

Price Stability

The primary objective of stablecoins is to maintain a stable value relative to the pegged asset(s). This stability allows users to transact and store value without worrying about significant price fluctuations commonly associated with other cryptocurrencies.

Fast and Secure Transactions

Stablecoins benefit from the underlying blockchain technology, enabling fast and secure transactions. Blockchain's decentralized nature ensures that transactions are recorded transparently and cannot be easily tampered with.

Global Accessibility

Stablecoins can be transferred instantly across borders, providing a global means of exchange. This accessibility makes stablecoins particularly useful for remittances and cross-border transactions.

Financial Inclusion

Stablecoins have the potential to increase financial inclusion by providing access to digital currencies and financial services to individuals who are unbanked or underbanked. Stablecoins can be easily stored and accessed through digital wallets, even with basic internet connectivity.


Stablecoins represent an innovative solution within the cryptocurrency ecosystem by offering stability in an otherwise volatile market. Through various mechanisms such as collateralization, algorithmic control, or central bank backing, stablecoins maintain a stable value relative to a pegged asset. They combine the benefits of cryptocurrencies, such as fast and secure transactions, with the stability of traditional fiat currencies. As the adoption of stablecoins continues to grow, they have the potential to revolutionize the way we transact and store value in the digital age.